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Also known as refractive errors, they generate a deficit in the focus of images.
These are the main four:
1/4 Myopia
Myopia is a refractive error that makes it difficult to see clearly at a distance. This happens because the eyeball is too long or the cornea is more curved than what is considered normal.

It usually appears during childhood and it evolves and tends to stabilise around the age of 20. People with a family history of myopia are more likely to have it.

Someone with myopia sees perfectly well the objects they have nearby, but see blurred objects at a distance.

Myopia cannot be prevented, but regular eye examinations, especially during childhood, help detect it, and this should be done the sooner the better.

Myopia is corrected with concave lenses, that is, thin in the centre and thick at the sides. For high prescriptions thin lenses are recommended, as they are more aesthetic.
2/4 Hypermetropia
Hypermetropia is a refractive error that causes blurred vision, especially at close distances. This is because the cornea has a flatter curvature than normal or the eyeball is smaller than usual.

Hypermetropic people, when they don't have the proper correction, have to make a continuous effort to accommodate and be able to focus on objects.

The main symptoms of a hypermetropic person are: headache, tiredness and eye pain and redness. Most of young hypermetropic people are usually asymptomatic, as they are able to compensate for poor nearsighted vision through their focusing ability.

Hypermetropia is corrected with converging lenses, thicker in the centre and thinner on the sides.
3/4 Astigmatism
Astigmatism is a refractive error that affects both far and nearsighted vision. This is due to the fact that the optical surface of the cornea or of the crystalline lens is not spherical but has two different curvatures.

It may appear on its own or together with myopia or hypermetropia.
The most common symptoms are: poor visual acuity at a distance, difficulty in seeing details both near and far, headache, pain and burning eyes.

Without adequate protection, 80% of the UV radiation accumulated in the eye occurs before the age of 18.

Astigmatism is corrected with toric lenses, lenses that have different curvatures in different directions.
4/4 Presbyopia
Also known as eyestrain, is a refractive error which is due to the loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens and its musculature, causing a decrease in the ability to focus, resulting in difficulties in seeing clearly up close. This process generally begins to appear between the ages of 40 and 45 and increases with age.

The symptoms that cause eyestrain are eye fatigue, a feeling of sleepiness while reading and the inability to perform prolonged tasks at close range. Moving away from what you are reading or moving closer to an intense light source in order to read better are obvious signs of presbyopia.
Even if you have never had vision problems, eyestrain will end up showing with age.
Other eye health problems:
1/2 Amblyopia
Also known as lazy eye, is when one or both eyes have lower than normal visual acuity. The cause of this is the lack of stimulation of the eyes during the developmental stage of the visual system.

The most common cause is the difference of visual quality between both eyeslazy eye it is a pathology that originates during childhood, so it must be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible, in order to be able to correct it before adulthood.

The treatment consists of maximum stimulation the lazy eye. What is usually done is correct their prescription and occlude the other eye.